Rebort - Lab Report Example Therefore, an inverse relationship existed between transmittance and concentration. The green and red solutions provided linear relationships between concentration and transmittance. The equation % T=1/%Concentration was established where % transmission increased with a decrease in concentration. The above equation meant that plotting %T on the y-axis and 1/% concentration on the x-axis gave a straight line that passed through the origin (y intercept as zero). However, it was not possible to obtain a precise linear relationship between transmittance and concentration for the blue and blue-green solutions. Overall, the aim of the experiment was achieved because a relationship between transmittance and concentration was obtained. However, the setup could be improved further by increasing the percentage concentrations, for example, from 0% to 5% to 10% and so on. Additionally, the solutions that did not yield good linear results (blue and blue-green) could be diluted further to enable the establishment of a linear relationship between transmittance and concentration. It was concluded that spectrophotometry was a reliable technique in the determination of the concentrations of colored
Narrative It was 2:23 on a Friday afternoon. Normally, at this time, I would have been missing my Computer Science lecture. But by a strange and, dare I call it convenient, twist of fate, the professor?s father died a couple days ago and the class was canceled. Not that it would have made a difference; I was prepared to skip the lecture and attend another given by Ira Berlin, a distinguished Mellon Senior Scholar, entitled Rethinking Slavery: 1800-1861. I walked through the entrance to 213 Gregory Hall, the room in which the lecture was to be given, and entered a completely empty room. To the best of my knowledge, the lecture was supposed to start at 2:30, which puzzled me. I figured that maybe it was rescheduled to a later time, and I?d stick around for a while until I got bored enough to leave. I seized the opportunity to choose my seat wisely. The room was divided into two major groups of seats, oriented in columns. Each column was seven seats wide and 10 seats deep. And there were a few seats lined up along the windows in the back as well, providing an approximate capacity of 150 persons, I estimated. My thought process was that I was here to observe the people more than the lecture. I also analyzed the fact that I don?t like history and concluded that if I sat in front, to see and hear the professor with greater ease, I would either bore myself or I wouldn?t understand. And since both of those were scenarios that eventually resulted in my narrative being terrible, I decided to try my luck in the back. Two minutes passed before two more entered the room. They were two men, young enough to be students. The first had white skin, and wore a T-Shirt, a cap, and a metallic watch similar... ... made my way out. I had sat is that seat for over 2 hours and 10 minutes. My legs needed stretched, and I had a taste for a Big-Mac. What was the point of that lecture? For me, it was for a grade in Rhetoric 105, but I was probably a minority. It puzzled me that the lecture was open to the public, yet the average Joe, unless I have seriously overestimated my intelligence, would have no idea what Berlin was talking about. I go to lectures and classes in order to learn something, but I learned nothing here. Berlin spent a good 45 minutes bombarding me with new information, but he obviously assumed that the audience already knew things that I didn?t, because I comprehended none of the material. The only conclusion I could make was that, in order to understand what Berlin was saying, you had to already be familiar with the material that Berlin was covering.
The book deals with how Body Language affects your business career and illustrates you step-by-step examples on the effect of Body Language and how to use it in favour of your success. The authorâ€™s Allan & Barbara Pease both come from the Business World and established this book together, developing specific techniques trough personal experiences. Allan Pease made his first personal experience with the effect of Body Language as a Teenage Boy, working as a door-to-door salesman for a rubber sponge company.
He quickly learned, by watching the peopleâ€™s Body Language on what they were thinking and then found a way to persuade them to willingly buy the rubber sponges without them noticing it. He later worked as a successful salesman for an Australian Life Insurance Company. The Book is a â€œHow toâ€ Book and designated to prospective and current Business People. The author adresses the reader directly, which gives a more personal approach to the Book. The authorâ€™s style is very informal, the quality of writing is very clear and original which makes it easier for the reader to follow and not get bored.
It suits the intended audience. Body The book contains seven Chapters, each chapter representing a different situation the reader is confronted with in his/her everyday Business Life, making it easier for the reader to identifiy himself/herself in the examples and adapting them more easely. Each example is given an additional illustration or specific situation so the reader is directly involved in the situation and understands better what the author is refering to. Furthermore, there are 14 Business rules spread out over the book.
More precisely, each chapter contains 2 Business Rules that have to be remembered. Moreover, the book is divided into two different categories: â€˜A woman in Businessâ€™ and â€˜A man in Businessâ€™. The first chapter has the Title â€œ Interviews: How to Get the Jobâ€¦Every Time; Are you Sitting Comfortably ? How to Sit, Where and Why â€œ . It discusses how a First Impression is made and how to work on it. The first impression is more important than what is written on your Curriculum Vitae. The Interviewer will remember your appearance rather than what College you attended.
This chapter also tells you what to do and what not to do in an interview, by example not to wear a Goatee because it represents Satan and people will most likely repel people subconciously. Furthermore, the chapter sow the reader how seating arrangements can change your whole position and what type of Table is most suitable for a Conference. The second chapter has the Title â€œ How to Take Your Career in Your Hands: the Art of Handshaking, Networking and Surviving the Office Partyâ€.
In this chapter the reader learns what a Handshake can do to his/her professional career, in other words : â€œA good handshake can be the difference between a career boost and career suicideâ€. Furthemore, the reader learns how to behave at an Office Party and how to boost your popularity. The third chapter, â€œPersuasive Presentationsâ€ shows the reader how to behave during a Presentation, taking a close look at the audience and work with Power Point Presentations. In this chapter the reader learns that the audience sitting on their left is more likely to be attentive and respondend to Jokes than the audience sitting on their right.
The fourth chapter, â€œMastering Meetings and Perfecting Phone- and Video-Conferencingâ€ tells the reader how to behave during a Video Conference, watching his/her Body Language and adapting the speed of Voice and sound to the other person during Phone- and Video-Conferences. The fifth chapter, â€œThe Best-Kept Secrets of Successful Businesspeopleâ€ demonstrates the reader how to make himself/herself â€œtallerâ€ in the Businessworld, since it is proven that taller people get higher positions and therefor higher salaries.
Moreover, this chapter shows the reader how to use eye contact and moderate smiling in specific situations. The sixth chapter, â€œGlobalisation: The Perils and Pitfallsâ€ shows the reader to take into consideration foreign Body-Language, especially in the Business World where people travel a lot. The authors give the most common example of Japan,where certain aspecst of Body Language are perceived differently than in Europe and how misleading Body Language can ruin a Business Plan.
For example, when Japanese people nod their head while you are speaking does not mean that they are in complete agreement with you, but they are rather telling you that they are listening and that you should keep on talking. The seventh and last chapter, â€œOffice Politics, Power-Players, Office Romances and Other Ticking Bombsâ€ gives the reader examples on how to avoid intimidation by superiors,seeing whoâ€™s surfing on the internet and whoâ€™s really working at home, how to spot and â€œoffice romanceâ€ and most importantly how to deal with stress.
Conclusion The Book gives a clear and specific Guideline on â€œHow toâ€ Behave in different situations , but also shows the reader the Consequences of the mistakes he/she might be making without being conscious about them. The book is easy to follow and would rather be used by people preparing for an interview. In my opinion, it is very interesting to see how such little things that are thought to be unnoticed can have such a big impact on your professional career.
Personally, I encountered the same experience as the Author, Allan Pease working as a â€œsales person â€œ for an NGO, but instead of doing door-to-door I had to accost the people on the street. Opening your arms to the person and showing your palms is more likely to make people stop and listen to you than moving towards them, arms crossed. It was very interesting for me to find myself in certain aspects of the book and and learn ways to improve your own appearance. I would definetly recommend this book to any person who is looking for a Job or changing Workplace and/or preparing himself/herself for a presentation.
Representation of Power in Marvels Daredevil
How are the characters in Marvelâ€™s â€œDaredevilâ€ Netflix series portrayed as powerful?
The portrayal of power in fictional media often reflects connotations and assumptions made in the real world. By using the theoretical framework of semiology to analyse how Marvelâ€™s Daredevil constructs the notion of power, an insight into what elements audiences see as power and how media creators materialise power in their work can be brought to light. Ideologically, the idea of power has been at the very core of capitalist societies such as the one we live in, it would therefore be insightful to pursue academic research in the area through deconstructing its representation.
Marvelâ€™s Daredevil series is an origin story created for the on-demand platform of Netflix. As a piece of media that exists within the modern superhero genre, power is a key theme. From a media studies perspective, Daredevil is a noteworthy text for analysis. Much like other Netflix series, its release on the digital platform saw the entire season of Daredevil released at once. This creates a pressure free form of storytelling for the media creators as it allows for characters and other elements of the Daredevil world to develop naturally over time without taking into consideration whether an audience member has watched the show sequentially each week. It would therefore be insightful to analyse how power is developed and represented in this new structure of storytelling.
Methodology (strengths and weaknesses)
In order to analyse the representation of power in the Daredevil show, a semeiotic analysis will be used to answer the question. A semiotic analysis of elements within the episodes will be used in order to deconstruct how power is represented. A semiotic analysis is a form of media research originally coined by the theorists Charles Sanders Pierce and Ferdinand De Saussure in the early twentieth century. Widely meaning the study of signs, Pierce stated that a sign is â€œsomething which stands to somebody for something in some respect or capacityâ€ (Pierce 1955: 99) while Saussure describes semiology as â€œa science that studies the life of signs.â€ (Saussure 1959: 16)
Media texts, such as television shows, are seen as constructs of meaning. Theorist Stuart Hall (1997) suggests that meanings are encoded within the media by its creators and then decoded by audiences who actively react to it based on personal experiences, lifestyles and social norms at the time of viewing. Fiske describes denotation as being what is photographed and connotation as how the photo has been taken (Fiske, 1990). By deconstructing the representation of power in Daredevil through semiotic analysis, the underlying symbols used by media authors to create power can be brought to light.
To analyse semiotics is to analyse the symbolic meaning of signs in a media text. De Saussure suggested that signs consist of two inseparable aspects: the signifier and signified. The signifier often exists in the material world in the form of letters, objects and images and is interpreted through our senses of touch, sight, sound etc. The signified is the mental concept or meaning attached to the signifier. Essentially, the equation for signs is as follows:
The Signifier + Signified = Sign
The purpose of a semiotic analysis, then, is to understand how meanings are formed by reviewing how texts are constructed by using the above equation. In employing this methodology, it would be beneficial for a researcher to understand the strengths and limitations of semiology. Theorists such as Robert Hodge and Gunther Kress advocate the notion that â€œsemiotics offersâ€¦a systematic, comprehensive and coherent study of communications phenomena as a wholeâ€ (Hodge Kress, 1988:1). Furthermore, Semiotics provides scholarly research with conceptual framework and a set of tools and terms to analyse many forms of communication.
On the other hand, semiology is often critiqued as being almost imperialistic, since some theorists see it as being applicable to anything and everything, infringing on almost every theoretical and ideological discipline. As a result of the breadth in which semiology is applied, it is said to be difficult to offer a critique on a theoretical framework that changes so much depending on its application. This is emphasised by John Sturrock in Structuralism (1986) where he illustrates this infringement as a â€œdramatic extensionâ€¦â€ that would â€œinclude the whole of cultureâ€¦â€ (Sturrock, 1986:89).
Literature surrounding semiotic analysis often suggests that there are not many who work as â€˜semioticiansâ€™, however it is rational to accept that everyone utilises semiotic methodology to some extent in their everyday lives. In an article written by Arthur Asa Berger, it is suggested in the section titled â€˜People Watching and Facial Expressionâ€™ that curiosity is a driving force for why people may make a semiotic analysis, stating that â€œwe often watch people [and] scrutinise themâ€ (Berger, 2013:23), he continues to state that semiotic analysis is exercised when a person wonders where someone is going or what they are doing, â€œâ€¦body structure, body language, clothing, brandsâ€¦â€ (Berger, 2014:23) are some of the elements that are scrutinised in order to make an informed guess in answering those questions.
While both key thinkers, De Saussure and Ferdinand, did not originally develop semiotics and semiology respectively for analysing media, it has since been a pioneering force in analysing contemporary media texts. In The Consumerâ€™s Stake in Radio and Television, theorist Dallas Smythe suggested that television texts should be analysed as a â€œgroup of symbolsâ€ that â€œserve as a medium of exchange between the mass media and the audienceâ€ (Smythe, 1954:143), the ideas of semiotics and semiology coincide with Smytheâ€™s statement.
Smytheâ€™s statement can also be applied to genre studies in the sense that genre is essentially a group of symbols that create a medium in which recurring codes and conventions allow a media text to be â€œclassified and organisedâ€ (Casey, 2002:135). Listed under the superhero, action and adventure genres on Netflix, Daredevil will inevitably adhere to those specific genre conventions, it can therefore be said that signifiers that link to the signified ideas of superheroes, such as having extraordinary powers, a moral code and a secret identity will be used in the show.
In terms of the ideological stance on power, Marxist literature focuses on the argument that mass media, such as television, is significantly influenced by the needs of the upper class in capitalist society. Marxist theory regarding the base and superstructure reinforces the idea of upper class dominance through mass media (Marx Engels, 1947). However a more culture orientated Marxist approach to media lies in Gramsciâ€™s theory of hegemony.
In Gramsciâ€™s Prison Notebooks (1995), Gramsci rejected ideas of crude materialism and instead offered a more humanist form of Marxism that focused on human subjectivity and the power of media. He used the term hegemony to describe the predominance of one social class over the other (Gramsci, 1995). The media therefore prescribes, through signs, the dominant norms, values and tastes, political practices and social relations. (Sassoon, 1982)
As mentioned before, signifiers often take form in the materialistic world of production. These catalysts for meaning can range from anything in the mise-en-scene, such as performance, lighting and costume, to the cinematographers choice of angles and camera shots. These verbal and visual elements then become the signified in which audiences draw links between an object and an idea. The two major characters in Daredevil, the antagonist and protagonist, will be analysed to understand how the idea of power has been encoded within them.
The characters, Fisk and Murdock, can be seen as mirrors of one another. In literary terms they would be labelled as foils, the term is used to describe two characters that have comparative traits but are contrasted by their actions. Both characters believe they are saving the location of Hellâ€™s Kitchen and exercise their power to do so. Power is therefore denoted in their actions, whether itâ€™s violently interrogating criminals to find out where hostages are being kept or violently making an example of someone in order to keep the criminal underworld in line, both characters use their violent power to achieve their objectives. This is emphasised in Fiskâ€™s dialogue in which he says â€œI want to save this city, like you. But only on a scale that mattersâ€. This acts as a verbal signifier and indicates his exercise of power, even if innocent lives are lost in the process.
In Episode three, titled Rabbit in a Snow Storm, the audience are introduced to a painting of the same name which symbolically represents more than just a simple painting. On one hand it denotes how the characters get caught up and lost in the bigger picture just as the rabbit is caught in the snowstorm. On the other hand, Fiskâ€™s obsession with this piece of art soon brings out one of the major themes of the entire show: What kind of man or woman do you want to become? Fiskâ€™s power over monetary wealth and the criminal underworld is at the core of this concern and the painting acts as a signifier for this idea.
Moreover, this idea of power and the responsibility that comes with great power is applicable to the character of Murdock. Fisk is repeatedly shown to have struggled with what kind of man he wants to become and this is seen when he stares at the painting over and over again, which in turn signifies his increasing power as different events occur. Conversely, Murdock also struggles with who he is and what he may become as a result of his power. Murdock finds himself in the confession booth seeking guidance from Father Lantom. Through this faith, an iconic signifier which emphasises power is revealed. The juxtaposition between the iconic symbols of the church and Daredevil connotes the power of both good and evil existing within Murdoch. Faith plays a central part in the original Daredevil comic book story and it is what drives him to constantly question his own morality.
The show has been widely praised for its violent and gritty fight scenes, however as a media construct, Murdochâ€™s fighting prowess in these scenes act as obvious signifiers for him being a powerful character as he is often pitted against insurmountable odds. Another symbol of power is seen through Murdochâ€™s questioning of his morality, this is seen in episode three where he confronts Fiskâ€™s hired killer. While his own life is at risk, he still struggles with the notion of murder. This also reflects the superhero genre conventions of morality and its idea of killing one villain to save the many innocent.
In the final scenes of episode thirteen, Daredevil obtains his most symbolic costume from the comic books. Reminiscent of the devil, his attire symbolises his identity as the Daredevil. Murdoch eventually adopts this identity as his alias as it has the power to instil fear. As an iconic sign, the media creators of Daredevil construct this verbal signifier in the dialogue where criminals often call Murdoch â€œthe devilâ€ in fear. Fear is therefore a sign used in representing the character of Murdoch as powerful.
On the other hand, Murdochâ€™s foil, Fisk is not a character revealed until the third episode. And other characters often state that â€œwe donâ€™t say his name.â€ Furthermore, characters who end up revealing his name state that â€œhe will find meâ€¦and everyone Iâ€™ve ever cared aboutâ€¦and make an exampleâ€. An element of the mise-en-scene, the performance and dialogue of other characters, are therefore used as verbal signs to imply how powerful the character of Fisk is. This element of fear derives from merely saying the characterâ€™s name and again, parallels Murdochâ€™s use of fear.
Connotations that represent power are seen in the character of Wilson Fisk through his attire. Episode eight, titled Shadows in the Glass, illustrates this well by beginning with a montage of Wilson Fiskâ€™s typical morning routine. A number of visual signifiers take shape in this opening sequence to connote power. His choice of clothing acts as a symbolic sign, reflecting what society has deemed a stereotypical rich man to look like. His suits, mainly black, therefore symbolise economic wealth and power respectively as the colour of black is widely associated with power and strength. Power is also encoded through the use of non diegetic sound. Classical music is inserted by the media creators in order to reinforce this idea of Fisk being a powerful member of the upper class in which the â€˜finer things in lifeâ€™ such as classical music and Fiskâ€™s skills in the culinary arts as he makes breakfast is underlined.
Politics and media, and more specifically power and media has always had an ambiguous relationship. Gross (1991) suggested that the powerful can often â€œinfluenceâ€ their own portrayals as well as others. The show takes this idea and illustrates it within episode six, titled Condemned, in a scene where the antagonist coerces the media, police and other public institutions into making the Murdoch the scapegoat for bombings that occur in Hellâ€™s Kitchen, hence the episode name being Condemned. The representation of power is highlighted here as the media is influenced by the antagonist. Fiskâ€™s control over the media is therefore another symbolic sign of him being a powerful character.
A visual signifier for power used effectively throughout the season is body language; the positioning of Fisk often underlines him as a powerful character. The actor casted in the role, Vincent DOnofrio, stands at 6ft4 and weighs 130kg. While a man of this build already visually connoted as being powerful, the cinematography in Daredevil emphasises this by using low angles. By viewing the character from a low angle, Fisk is positioned above the audience and looks down on them, just as Fisk is framed in such a way that causes the audience to look up at the character, connoting a sense of power as he towers over the viewer.
In closing, the makers of the Daredevil Netflix series evidently employ signifiers that create the idea of power in order to truly illustrate how powerful a character is. A semiotic analysis of the two characters, Murdoch and Fisk, allow for an understanding of what elements have been used in order to create the impression of power a hero or villain. Most notable is the performative element of the mise-en-scene. Just as it is suggested by Berger in his analysis of applied semiotics in Semiotics and Society (2013), â€œbody structure, body languageâ€ and facial expressions acts as strong signifiers in Daredevil.
The performance of the actors who play Wilson Fisk and Matthew Murdoch therefore play a major role in creating verbal and visual signifiers for the notion of power. Furthermore, this is empowered by the character foils in which their parallels work to empower their different powers, be it supernatural as Murdoch or economic and coercive as Fisk.
Media texts such as television and film are essentially signs containing other signs, and while some signifiers may not be obvious, a semiotic investigation aims to make these implicit signals, explicit. The employment of a semiotic analysis was insightful in regards to how ideas are constructed. The representation of power corresponds with Marxist ideology in which the powerful, such as Fisk, control the superstructure (Marx Engels, 1947) in the show. As stated at the beginning of the research report, the idea of power often reflects assumptions made in the real world. It is therefore informative to see how verbal and visual signs in actions, performances and costume present the idea of power to the audience.
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Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.